Patients over Patents: AMP and ASHG Reaffirm that Genes Should Not be Patentable

Guest Post By: Mary Steele Williams, MNA, MT(ASCP)SM, Executive Director of Association for Molecular Pathology

Earlier this summer, the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) spearheaded a sign-on letter with the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), ASHG, and a diverse community of approximately 200 medical, scientific, patient advocacy, women’s health, and civil rights organizations.

Mary Steele Williams, Executive Director of Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP), and Dr. Roger Klein, MD, JD, AMP leader, outside the Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., during AMP v. Myriad in 2013.” (Provided by AMP)
Mary Steele Williams, Executive Director of Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP), and Dr. Roger Klein, MD, JD, AMP leader, outside the Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., during AMP v. Myriad in 2013. (Provided by AMP)

The letter expressed serious concerns with the recent draft proposal to amend Section 101 of the Patent Act, and warned about the significant consequences of allowing DNA and gene-disease associations to be patentable. ASHG and ACMG past and current leadership also sent out a letter to the bill’s sponsors expressing similar concerns. This month, ASHG caught up with Mary Steele Williams, Executive Director of AMP to discuss the history of gene patents and the current legislation.

ASHG: What would it mean for the genetics community if genes could be patented?

Ms. Williams: This proposal would have massive reverberations across all sectors of the genetics community. If naturally-occurring DNA sequences, segments or gene-disease associations become patent-eligible again, there would be serious consequences for research and clinical diagnostics. Legislation that allows the patenting of natural phenomena, laws of nature or abstract ideas would impede innovation by hampering discovery and the development of new technologies – because these aspects of nature cannot be designed or invented around. The clinical application of genetic research, diagnostic tests, and clinical services would be stymied. For example, multi-gene sequencing panels could require licensing arrangements for each gene or gene variant, which would significantly drive up costs for patient care. Even worse, testing could become unavailable altogether if owners refused to license at reasonable (or any) terms.

ASHG: What would it mean for the general public?

Ms. Williams: Patient care would become stifled, as we would return to the days when the basics of nature, our genes, and the mental processes of gene-disease association could be privately owned and restricted in access. Patent holders could choose whether a diagnostic test could be developed and by whom, and even influence its overall design. This could result in a test being offered by a single entity, an outdated version of a test being the only one available, or not being available at all. This was increasingly the norm prior to the 2013 Association for Molecular Pathology v Myriad Genetics ruling. Because gene sequences are not patent-eligible, a lot of amazing research and progress in clinical care is able to evolve and thrive, and it is critical that we protect this innovation.

ASHG: Tell us about the 2013 AMP v. Myriad ruling and its effects.

Ms. Williams: For over 150 years, the Supreme Court has held that laws of nature, natural phenomena, and abstract ideas are not patent-eligible under Section 101 of the Patent Act. In the landmark 2013 AMP v. Myriad  case, a unanimous Supreme Court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs (AMP, et al.) and determined that a “naturally occurring DNA segment is a product of nature and not patent-eligible merely because it has been isolated.” The Court concluded that such patents would lock up genetic information and prevent others from scientific and medical work.

The Court’s 2013 ruling was the culmination of many years of deep concern within the medical field, and was celebrated across the greater scientific community who fought hard for the chance to be heard. The positive impact was immediate, and molecular testing is now part of the standard of care. On the day of the AMP v. Myriad decision, five laboratories announced their intention to develop BRCA1/2 tests. Since then, the clinical use of genetic tests and genetic research has continued to thrive. We are now approaching 10,000 multi-gene panel tests on the market with an average of 14 new molecular tests added each day.

ASHG: Why and how has this issue re-emerged?

Ms. Williams: Earlier this year, following a series of closed roundtable discussions, Senators Tillis (R-NC) and Coons (D-DE) and Representatives Collins (R-GA), Johnson (D-GA), and Stivers (R-OH) released draft legislation that proposed to radically alter Section 101 of the Patent Act. The draft language would shift the focus of Section 101 to favor those seeking patents by allowing patents on anything found to be useful. It explicitly indicates  that judicially-created exceptions for abstract ideas, laws of nature, or natural phenomena cannot be used to determine patent eligibility. Essentially, the draft proposes to abrogate all court decisions that led to or supported those exceptions, including Mayo Collaborative Servs. v. Prometheus (2012), AMP v. Myriad (2013), and Alice Corp. v. CLS Bank (2014).

ASHG: What is AMP doing in response?

Ms. Williams: Since the draft was released, the sponsors of the legislation have stated that it was not their intent to allow patenting of “DNA within the human body.” However, this argument does not alleviate AMP’s concerns. The AMP v. Myriad decision was so important because it specifically determined that naturally occurring DNA sequences or segments are products of nature, and are not patent-eligible merely because they had been isolated.

AMP remains very concerned about the actual impact the draft legislation would have and the consequences of this evolving proposal, regardless of stated intent. The potential effects this legislation could have on research and patient care would be enormous and damaging. AMP anticipates that the next draft of the legislative proposal will be released sometime in the next few months. In the meantime, AMP continues to work diligently with aligned stakeholders, including ASHG, to lead efforts to educate others about this issue and advocate for naturally-occurring DNA sequences or segments and gene-disease associations to remain patent-ineligible.

Today, AMP is prepared to win this fight again. In this age of precision medicine, it is more important than ever to maintain the boundaries between nature and technology, so that we can continue to develop innovative diagnostics for devastating diseases and provide access to the best medical care. Since the Supreme Court’s 2013 decision, multiplex gene panels that feature dozens of genes in a single test are now routine practice. Advances such as this would have been difficult, if not impossible, without the Court’s decision. We must keep the focus on patients.

To stay up-to-date on this issue and more, be sure to subscribe to ASHG’s monthly policy and advocacy email updates.

Fill Your Next Opening on the ASHG Career Center

Posted By: Evelyn Mantegani, Public Education & Engagement Specialist, ASHG

ASHG is happy to provide genetics and genomics employers with the ASHG Career Center. This new and improved online job board provides a wide range of opportunities to recruit and attract first-rate talent with a minimum expenditure of time and resources. Easily browse the resumes and post your job openings for a small fee (ASHG members get a discount!).

(On the hunt for your next position? Check out our tips for job seekers.)

Have you wondered what other features for employers are offered? Here’s how to use the Career Center to most effectively fill your next position and find your future colleague.

Save as an ASHG Member

  • If you’re a current ASHG member, you’ll save at least $200 on all job posting rates. Join or renew today!

Effectively Convey the Opportunity

  • Choose from six different job posting options – Posting options include bulk posts and varying lengths to post.
  • Save time creating your post – Use the provided form to make it easy for you to enter and update your job postings, which will get your posting out to candidates faster.
  • Create a video – For an added fee, create professional, 60-second videos to provide key information, brand identification, and a call to action for each of your postings.

Search for and Find Candidates

  • Easily collect applications – Enter your corporate website to the posting form to receive all applications directly.
  • Contact candidates directly – You can reach out to candidates, mark them as interested, forward a candidate to a colleague, or print a job profile directly from the site.
  • Create resume search alerts – Set up a resume search and you’ll receive an email when the right candidate becomes available.
  • Easy outreach to candidates – If a job seeker has set up a job alert, the site will automatically contact him or her if your job is a match. Make sure your job titles and descriptions are as complete as possible to enable this feature.

Maximize Your Reach

  • Become a Featured Employer –This will increase your exposure through enhancing your job posting, banner ads, and logo visibility. The Premium Employer Page also includes branding tips.
  • Use your data to boost your posting – Get detailed information about your job postings, such as views, number of applications, and how any times your job was emailed directly to a job seeker via an alert.
  • Access to the Engineering & Science Career Network – Posting your job on our page allows your opening to be listed and viewed nationwide on relevant Engineering and Science partner Career Centers.

A Genetic Counselor’s Guide to ASHG 2019

Posted By: Dawn Allain, Member, 2019 Program Committee

As patients gain interest in understanding the impact of genetics on health, Genetic Counselors are becoming increasingly necessary in medical genetics and genomics practice. As a genetic counselor, I’m proud to serve on the ASHG Program Committee, and help select and shape Annual Meeting content to serve our genetic counselor members and attendees.

ASHG 2019 is the meeting for genetic counselors, and I’m excited to tell you why!

Dawn Allain at the 2019 Program Committee Meeting
Dawn Allain (pink shirt) and Program Committee colleagues gathered in July to assemble the schedule for ASHG 2019.

Cutting-edge Scientific Content

The value of attending ASHG starts with the scientific content. Exposure to the latest findings gives counselors the opportunity to engage and learn about new science before it makes its way to clinical care. This allows us to think about how it may be applied in a clinical or laboratory setting and consider impact on patient outcomes. At the ASHG meeting, clinicians and scientists can exchange observations and ideas that can lead to future research collaborators.

Who Should Attend?

Since ASHG covers a wide assortment of information, anyone in the field would benefit. But specifically:

  • Genetic counselors with translation and industry roles would definitely benefit from access to basic research and clinical research findings, and interactions with the scientists and exhibiting companies involved.
  • The Meeting is also great for genetic counselors who are educators, such as program directors or anyone who teaches.
  • Finally, ASHG is great for new genetic counselors, so they can understand the interprofessional interactions that happen in genetics and genomics.

What Sessions to Attend?

If you’re a genetic counselor unsure where to start at ASHG, I’d say to start by attending the invited plenary sessions and workshops. Practicing counselors and educators may find the platform session, Strategies to Improve Genetic Counseling Practice and Education a stimulating series of talks, and I think research counselors will find the session, Research Participants’ Experiences and Preferences interesting.

This year’s joint session with National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC), called Achieving Successful Collaborations in a Research Setting, is perfect for counselors who are interested in becoming more involved in collaborative research. This should be an informative session and a great networking opportunity. I also recommend Clinical Spotlight: Novel Insights into the Genetics of Reproduction: Precision Medicine and Personalized Assisted Reproductive Technologies, and Clinical Spotlight: Basic Research to Clinical Implementation: A Multidisciplinary Overview of the Current State and Future Directions of Clinical Pharmacogenomic Testing.

Industry genetic counselors should check out Value Assessment of Genomic Testing from Diverse Stakeholder Perspectives in Health Services, and education-focused counselors should stop in on Addressing the Genomics Literacy Gap in Society: A Conversation about the How, What, Why, and Impact of Modern Educational Frameworks.

All genetic counselors can benefit from the session DNA in the Public Sphere: How Genomic Information is Used and Protected Outside of Research and Medicine. Finally, the presidential symposium is always thought provoking, and this year’s will be as well. The topic is genetic exceptionalism.

Networking Strategies for Genetic Counselors

Make sure you pick up your genetic counselor ribbon from ASHG Central in the Exhibit & Poster Hall! This helps other attendees identify you more quickly. Talk to poster presenters and make use of the Reception: Career Paths in Genetics. If you like to network online, you can also use #ASHG19 to find other attendees.

A longtime member of the Society, Dawn Allain, MS, CGC, is a member of the ASHG Program Committee and an Associate Professor in Internal Medicine at The Ohio State University.  

Inside AJHG: A Chat with Jennifer Posey and Jim Lupski

Posted By: Sara Cullinan, PhD, Deputy Editor, AJHG

Each month, the editors of The American Journal of Human Genetics interview an author of a recently published paper. This month we check in with Jennifer Posey (@poseypod) and Jim Lupski to discuss their paper “Paralog Studies Augment Gene Discovery: DDX and DHX Genes.”

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This photo of current and former lab members celebrates 30 years of discoveries in the Lupski lab. (courtesy Dr. Lupski)

 

AJHG: What prompted you to start working on this project? 

Jenn and Jim: This project developed from several of the lessons we’ve learned through our work in the Baylor Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics. In collaboration with our Drosophila colleagues (Hugo Bellen, Shinya Yamamoto, Michael Wangler), we had learned that Drosophila genes with multiple human orthologs are 8-fold more likely to be associated with Mendelian conditions in humans (Yamamoto S, et al. Cell (2014)159:200-214).

Other key collaborations led to the elucidation of DHX30 and DDX3X as genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (Lessel D, et al. Am J Hum Genet (2017)101:716-724; Wang X, et al. Ann Clin Transl Neurol (2018)5:1277-1285) bringing the DExD/H-box RNA helicase gene family into focus as a candidate set of paralogous genes with which we could test our hypothesis that a paralog-focused gene-first approach would reveal novel candidate disease genes associated with overlapping phenotypic features.

AJHG: What about this paper/project most excites you? 

Jenn & Jim:  Many of our research participants were first recognized clinically as having a rare condition with clinical features that were molecularly unexplained.  This focus on clinical features – or phenotypes – can often drive ‘phenotype-focused’ research analyses to identify relevant genes. While successful as an approach to novel disease gene discovery, the richness of clinical features, and the clinical variability amongst individuals sharing the same causative gene, can be lost.

Turning this approach on its head, we instead took a gene-first approach to interrogate a large cohort of participants with varied phenotypes to objectively identify clinical features associated with rare variants in DExD/H-box RNA helicase genes. We were struck by the observation that both clinical features common to a majority of individuals with rare variants in these genes (neurodevelopmental delay), as well as unique features that were observed in only a subset of individuals (genitourinary disease), were revealed by this approach.

We were also pleased to see the involvement of the international community facilitated by GeneMatcher (https://www.genematcher.org/), and the matching of multiple stakeholders, including families, physicians, and researchers interested in this gene family. GeneMatcher also led to another successful collaboration with our colleagues at the University of Washington Center for Mendelian Genomics and fomented gene discovery.

AJHG: Thinking about the bigger picture, what implications do you see from this work for the larger human genetics community?

Jen & Jim: A gene-first approach and family-based genomics is turning out to be a very powerful way to gain an entry point into disease biology, and at the same time, stimulate molecular diagnoses for families.

AJHG: What advice do you have for trainees/young scientists?

Jenn & Jim: Work hard and diligently to understand disease biology in human genetics. Collaboration and international team-building benefits all stakeholders.

AJHG: And for fun, tell us something about your life outside of the lab.

Jenn & Jim: Life outside the lab is enriched by the colleagues and collaborators and families with whom we are so fortunate to spend time.

There is a curious parallel between the inspiration derived from art and artists’ expressions of their individuality and the drive we share to understand how genetics and genomics impacts each individual’s personal health. Tableside conversations become even more interesting with international travel, good foods from all over the world, and shared experiences.

Jennifer Posey, MD, PhD is an Assistant Professor of Molecular and Human Genetics at Baylor College of Medicine. James Lupski, MD, PhD, DSc (hon) is the Cullen Professor of Molecular and Human Genetics and Professor of Pediatrics at Baylor College of Medicine. A longtime ASHG member, he was the recipient of the 2002 Curt Stern Award and the 2018 McKusick Leadership Award. 

Take Action this August Recess: Meet Your Elected Officials

Posted By: Jil Staszewski, Policy and Advocacy Manager

Starting this week, U.S. elected officials in Washington, DC will go into August recess. While Capitol Hill will grow quieter during the break, this doesn’t mean our advocacy activity should stop. In fact, this recess creates a unique opportunity for you as a constituent to help keep the momentum going right at home.

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ASHG members Lauren Tindale and Burcu Darst, and FASEB President Hannah Carey, met with Senator Tammy Baldwin in 2018.

As you may be aware, ASHG, along with FASEB, the Ad Hoc Group for Medical Research, and the rest of the biomedical research community has been busy advocating for a $41.6 billion budget for the NIH for Fiscal Year (FY) 2020 – a $2.5 billion increase from FY 2019. Last month, the House passed a $41.1 billion budget, and after the August recess, the Senate will begin developing its own legislation.

As your Members of Congress travel back to their home state or district offices for the remainder of the summer, scheduling a face-to-face meeting is a powerful way to establish a connection and advocate for your profession. Your personal story and achievements help your legislator understand the significance of your work in the state or district they represent, and why supporting NIH funding is crucial.

Not sure where to start? Here is a step-by-step guide (PDF version).

  1. Request the meeting.
    • Find your elected officials and their contact information using the House and Senate.
    • Email the legislator using the contact form or email address provided. In your email, be sure to confirm that you are a constituent, mention which institution you are from, and briefly describe the purpose of the meeting. Use the below template letter as a guide.
    • If you do not hear back within a week, you may follow up with the staff, as they receive many requests. Email again, and call the office and speak with the scheduler if necessary.

Dear Senator/Representative ______________:

My name is ____ and I am a geneticist and your constituent. I am writing to request a meeting with you and your staff in your district office to discuss the value of robust funding for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and its significance for my work. I am available to meet on (date). Please let me know a time that would work best for you.

Thank you so much for your time, and I look forward to meeting with you to discuss this important issue. You may contact me at (email/phone #).        

Sincerely,

[Your name, institution, address, and contact information]

  1. Once confirmed, prepare for the meeting.
    • The purpose of the meeting is to educate your Member of Congress about the importance of the field, and the value of federal funding and its impact on your research. Bring a handout to leave with the legislator and read through the material beforehand.
    • Read up on the legislator you are meeting with. Having a shared personal connection can help develop a rapport and make a lasting impression.
    • Develop a list of questions the legislator might ask and how you can answer them.
    • Let ASHG know the date of your meeting and who you are meeting with.
  2. Attend the meeting.
    • Describe your job using layman’s terms, and connecting it to the legislator’s constituents.
    • Thank the legislator for their support on past relevant issues.
    • Explain why the legislator’s support of increased NIH funding would be valuable for your work, and that this year, the research community is asking for $41.6 billion.
    • Answer any questions the legislator may have and ask how else you can be of assistance.
    • Take pictures with the legislator and their staff!
    • Leave behind materials, including your business card, and ask for theirs and their staff’s.
    • Invite the Member to visit your lab.
  3. Follow up.
    • Send a follow-up email shortly after the visit, thanking the legislator and staffer for their time.
    • Let ASHG policy staff know how the meeting went! Send us an email at policy@ashg.org. We may ask you to share your experience to help other ASHG advocates.

We look forward to hearing your stories, and are happy to assist with any questions  – just email policy@ashg.org. Thank you for your continued advocacy.

Inside AJHG: A Chat with Natalie Telis

Posted By: Sarah Ratzel, PhD, Science Editor, AJHG 

Each month, the editors of The American Journal of Human Genetics interview an author of a recently published paper. This month, we check in with Natalie Telis to discuss her paper, “Public Discussion Affects Question Asking at Academic Conferences.”

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Natalie Telis, PhD (courtesy Dr. Telis)

AJHG: What caused you to start working on this project? 

Dr. Telis: At one of the first conferences I went to, I realized after a day that I was the only woman who’d asked a question. And I remember thinking, “That’s weird, right?”

But then I second guessed it. I said, well, there were maybe 10 questions today. If 1 in 10 people in the audience are women, that participation is actually representative. What information would I need about this conference to discover whether this is representative participation?

Part of being a computational biologist is that you have a skill set that applies to computational problems — not just biology problems. So I started drawing on that skill set to try to learn more about this problem, and things kind of evolved from there!

AJHG: What about this paper most excites you? 

Dr. Telis: I am really excited about the opportunity to explicitly set goals, and then to use these techniques to measure whether our interventions get there. If our goal is to increase proportionate participation, it’s easy to say: “Well, having 50% of people in the room be women will help us get there.” But does that actually come to bear? We can test that question now (and learn that it doesn’t work that way). That can help us build powerful interventions to change culture and reshape access for underrepresented groups in science more broadly.

AJHG: Thinking about the bigger picture, what implications do you see from this work for the larger human genetics community?

Dr. Telis: The human genetics community is still grappling with questions about representation and participation across the board, not only for women scientists but across intersectional categories. I do hope that raising these questions in a scientific way has contributed to more discussion around inclusion and representation. We definitely still need to ask, what do we want our community to look like, and how do we get there?

This work provides a precedent and hopefully a computational framework for testing that. And that’s a critical infrastructure we need to develop as we attempt to create change.

AJHG: What advice do you have for trainees/young scientists?

Dr. Telis: Any question is an opportunity to hone your scientific skills. Asking questions about questions didn’t seem like human genetics to me, but the computational techniques I’ve learned were ultimately what I used to solve that problem. Being a scientist is an opportunity to live and work on the edge of what is known — bring that curiosity in the face of uncertainty with you wherever you go!

AJHG: And for fun, tell us something about your life outside of the lab.

Dr. Telis: I don’t really believe in New Year’s resolutions or setting a goalpost (especially because I always miss them), so instead this year I started trying to numerically track things I want myself to do more of. So I’m surprised and shocked and very proud to say I’ve read 27 books so far this year! Making space for all that fiction reading, not just paper reading, has made me more refreshed, inspired, and creative in my research.

Natalie Telis, PhD, is a Staff Scientist at AncestryDNA. She has been an ASHG member since 2014.

Advance Your Career at ASHG 2019: Here’s How

Posted By: Evelyn Mantegani, Public Education & Engagement Specialist, ASHG

We are excited to announce that ASHG’s first-ever Career Fair will be held at the 2019 Annual Meeting in Houston! It will be located in the Exhibit Hall on Wednesday, October 16 through Friday, October 18 from 1:15 pm – 3:15 pm. This event will connect innovative, energetic ASHG members looking for jobs with ASHG exhibitors who are actively hiring.

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The ASHG 2019 Career Fair will offer attendees a chance to meet face-to-face with hiring companies, grow their network, and learn about job opportunities.

This is a great opportunity for members of the global human genetics and genomics community to meet face-to-face with hiring companies. Meeting attendees of all levels of experience and backgrounds are welcome to attend at no additional cost.

For a reasonable fee, exhibiting companies can reserve a space at the Career Fair and will receive a discounted job post on the ASHG Career Center (ASHG’s year-round online job board), among other perks. Don’t miss this opportunity to fulfill your job-seeking and -hiring needs, while collaborating with existing and new scientific colleagues at ASHG 2019!

To increase your chances of job exposure, upload your resume/CV or job posting to the ASHG Career Center. This resource is available year-round and will be the main location for job postings and resumes at the ASHG meeting. The online Career Center and the Career Fair will be the only way to communicate job postings at ASHG 2019, as there will not be any physical job boards.

More questions about the Career Fair, ASHG Career Center, or other year-round career opportunities provided by ASHG? Email education@ashg.org. To sign up for a booth at the Career Fair, email Carrie Morin at cmorin@ashg.org.